BED BUGS

Common Name : Common Bedbug

Scientific Name : Cimex lectularius

Size : 5mm long

Colour : Adult bedbugs are a reddish brown, flattened, oval, and wingless, with microscopic hairs that give them a banded appearance. A common misconception is that they are not visible to the naked eye. Adults grow to 4 to 5 mm (one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch) in length and do not move quickly enough to escape the notice of an attentive observer.

Newly hatched nymphs are translucent, lighter in color and continue to become browner and moult as they reach maturity. When it comes to size, they are often compared to lentils or appleseeds .

Description :
Before feeding they are a flattened oval shape and light brown, but become rounder and darker after feeding. They come out at night and are attracted to the warmth of our bodies and carbon dioxide in our breath. They are usually found in bedrooms but hide in cracks and crevices during the day. A more established infestation is associated with dark or black staining of the mattress from bed bug excreta. An established infestation will also be associated with an unpleasant scent secreted by bed bugs.

Habitat :
The most common shelters for bedbugs are in the seams of mattresses, in crevices in the bed frame, behind furniture surrounding the bed (especially the headboard) or where the wall meets the floor. Bedbugs can be found on their own, but more often congregate in groups. Bedbugs are capable of travelling as far as 3,5m to feed, but usually remain close to the host in bedrooms or on sofas where people may sleep.

Lifecycle :
Bed bugs seem to possess all of the necessary prerequisites for being capable of passing diseases from one host to another, but there have been no known cases of bed bugs passing disease from host to host. There are at least twenty-seven known pathogens (some estimates are as high as forty-one) that are capable of living inside a bed bug or on its mouthparts. Extensive testing has been done in laboratory settings that also conclude that bed bugs are unlikely to pass disease from one person to another. Therefore bedbugs are less dangerous than some more common insects such as the flea. However, transmission of trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) or hepatitis B might be possible in appropriate settings.

Disease Transmitted :
The salivary fluid injected by bed bugs typically causes the skin to become irritated and inflamed, although individuals can differ in their sensitivity. Anaphylactoid reactions produced by the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins are observed and there is the possibility that the saliva of the bedbugs may cause anaphylactic shock in a small percentage of people. It is also possible that sustained feeding by bedbugs may lead to anaemia. It is also important to watch for and treat any secondary bacterial infection.

Sources / Breeding :
Bedbugs usually enter a property by being carried on clothing or inside furniture.The most common source of bedbugs is to stay at a hotel with an infestation. Bedbugs or their eggs get into clothing or suitcases and are then transported home. If there are any signs of bedbugs when staying at a hotel, particularly being bitten when sleeping or seeing blood spots on sheets, take great care in bringing your personal belongings home. Consult with hotel management to assess the risk – it may be necessary to launder, fumigate or treat clothes to ensure they are safe. The same applies in transferring furniture.

Prevention :
Treating the bites soothes the irritation, but it can still be very distressing when there are multiple bites as is often the case with bedbugs. Multiple bites and contact with bedbugs can also lead to an itchy rash or eczema. Consult a pharmacist for advice and treatment if this occurs. Bed bugs are an objectionable pest and one of the most difficult to eradicate. High levels of hygiene, deep cleaning and the use of amateur insecticides will help to keep bedbug numbers under control, however professional treatment will be required to eradicate the infestation. A suspect mattress can be protected by wrapping it in a painter’s disposable plastic drop cloth, neatly sealing shut all the seams with packing tape, and putting it on a protected bed after a final visual inspection. Bedding can be sanitized by a 120 °F (49 °C) laundry dryer. Once sanitized, bedding should not be allowed to drape to the floor. An effective way to quarantine a protected bed is to store sanitized sleeping clothes in the bed during the day, and bathing before entering the bed.

SAW TOOTH GRAIN BEETLE

Common Name : Saw Tooth Grain Beetle

Scientific Name : Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Size : 2.5 – 3 mm long

Description :
Flattened, reddish-brown, and about 1/10-inch long.Six saw tooth-like projections on each side of the thorax (middle part between the head and the wing covers). Under magnification, the saw toothed grain beetle has exposed eyes.Males can be separated from females by observing a tooth on the femur of the hind leg.

Habitat :
Beetles thrive on the dust of flour though they will readily feed on just about anything found in the home intended for people or pets.

Lifecycle :
The adult beetles usually deposit their eggs in the food stuffs they infest. A single female can lay from 45 to 250 or more eggs which hatch in 3 to 17 days depending on the temperature.The larva is yellowish white with a brown head and measures 1/8 of an inch in length when fully grown. The larval period lasts from 2 to 10 weeks after which they pupate by sticking together small bits of the food material to form a protective covering around their bodies. The pupal stage lasts from one to three weeks after which the new adults emerge.The adults are long-lived and have been kept alive for over 3 years Under ideal conditions the life cycle is completed in about 4 weeks.

Disease Transmitted :
They do not bite or sting humans or pets; do not spread disease .

Type of Damage :
The eggs are deposited on cracks in grain kernels. They can build up to high numbers in stored grain .

Sources / Breeding :
High moisture grain attracts insects and enhances more rapid breeding than does dry grain.

Prevention :
Freeze grains, flour, dried fruit and other dry foods from bulk food stores in the household freezer for a week before transferring the products to cupboards Store food in insect proof containers of glass or strong plastic with tight-fitting lids, and Clean kitchen counters and vacuum the insides of cabinets to remove spills and debris .

Sanitation :
Maintaining clean conditions is the best control. In warehouses and bulk storage facilities, products should be stored away from walls to make it easy to clean behind the containers.All spills should be cleaned up immediately. Stock should be rotated regularly.

Reduce Humidity :
Grains should be stored in a cool dry area.In commercial facilities, ventilation can be increased to reduce the moisture content of the grain.

RICE WEEVIL

Common Name : RICE WEEVIL.

Scientific Name : Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus).

Size : Adults are about 1/8 inch long Small beetles, length 2-3mm .

Colour : Reddish brown to black with four reddish or yellowish spots on the wing covers (elytra) .

Description :
Although distinguished by the four orange-reddish patches on its body. The head bears a slender snout and the shield behind the head (pronotum) have course round punctures. The elytra have deep lines (striae) and course punctures. Larvae are legless, white and rotund with a distinct head capsule. Both weevils have chewing mouthparts at the end of their snouts or prolonged heads, and are about 1/8- to 3/16-inch long, depending on the size of the grain kernel. In small grains, such as millet or milomaize, weevils are small in size; they are larger in corn. The adult granary weevil is a shiny reddish-brown with elongated pits on the thorax, whereas the adult rice weevil is a dull reddish-brown with round or irregularly shaped pits on the thorax and four light spots on the wing covers. These deep round punctures and light spots are lacking on the granary weevil. Also, the granary weevil cannot fly, whereas the rice weevil can fly. Both weevils in the larval stage are legless, humpbacked, white to creamy white, with a small, tan head. Weevils in the pupa stage have snouts like the adults. The maize weevil is similar to the rice weevil, but larger .Elongate snout bears small mouthparts that are mostly hidden; tarsi are 5-segmented but appear 4-segmented. Larvae are whitish, generally c- shaped and legless.

Habitat :
Mouthparts are for chewing. Found in stored grains of all types including wheat, corn, oats, barley, sorghum, macaroni, and other grain products. They may also infest grain in the field. Larvae hollow out kernels of grain and usually attack whole kernels. Holes in the side of the grain are made by adults and by the emerging adults. They build up in numbers in stored grain. Originally from Indo-Malayan region .Moved around the world by trade in rice .Adults are good fliers and easily disperse.

Lifecycle :
Adults are good fliers and easily disperse. Adults chew into the grain kernels from the outside and also to lay eggs. Females can lay 300 to 400 eggs typically one per cavity. Larvae develop through several stages (instars) inside the grain kernels and also pupate inside the kernel. They may complete a generation in a month in warm conditions. Adults often live for 7 to 8 months and some records are over 2 years. The egg, larva, and pupa stages of both weevils occur in the grain kernels and are rarely seen. Feeding is done within the grain kernel, and adults cut exit holes to emerge. Emergence holes of the granary weevil are larger than those of the rice weevil, and tend to be more ragged than smooth and round. Females drill a tiny hole in the grain kernel; deposit an egg in the cavity, then plug the hole with a gelatinous secretion. The egg hatches into a young larva which bores toward the centre of the kkernel, feeds, grows, and pupates there. New adults bore emergence holes from the inside, then leave to mate and begin a new generation. Female granary weevils lay from 36 to 254 eggs. At 80 to 86 degrees F, 75- to 90- percent relative humidity, eggs hatch in wheat with a moisture content of 13.5 to 19.6 percent in 3 days. Larvae mature in 18 days, and the pupa in 6 days. The life cycle is about 30 to 40 days during the summer, and 123 to 148 days during the winter, depending on temperature. Adults live 7 to 8 months. Female rice weevils lay between 300 to 400 eggs, with the life cycle requiring about 32 days for completion. Rice weevil adults live 3 to 6 months, infesting grain in the field, especially in the South. Two larvae can develop in one wheat kernel, but only one larva of the granary weevil can develop per wheat kernel. Both granary and rice weevils feign death by drawing up their legs close to the body, falling, and remaining silent when disturbed.

Disease Transmitted :
Granary and rice weevils do not bite or sting humans or pets, spread disease, or feed on or damage the house or furniture. Rice weevil is a cosmopolitan pest in stored grain products medically harmless.

Sources / Breeding :
Likely to be found wherever rice is stored.Other types of grain have similar pests.

Prevention :
Control of these insects by seed treatments is reliant on either the adults, in the case of cypermethrin, or larvae, when triflumuron is used, feeding on the treated grain and hence the insecticide. When feeding on treated grain, insecticide is ingested and the insect is killed. Eggs and larvae feeding exclusively within the seed are not controlled by this method, as there is no intake of chemical. However, when they emerge, insecticide is ingested from the surface of the seed and control is achieved. Only the larval stages of the moths consume grain. Therefore, adult moths may be present in treated grain, which is protected from larval damage by the insecticide. Further, the life cycle of the insect is interrupted and multiplication does not occur,as all larvae are killed by the protectant. In order to be effective, grain protectants are developed and formulated to maintain their toxic properties for an extended period. By contrast, a major stored grain insect of field peas, the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) is not controlled by seed treatments. Pea weevils infest the seed before harvest and do not ingest the seed during storage. Thus, multiplication can occur, uninhibited.

ORIENTAL RAT FLEA

Common Name : Oriental Rat Flea.

Scientific Name : Xenopsylla cheopis.

Size : 1/16 – 1/8 inch long .

Colour : Dark reddish-brown .

Description :
Wingless, hard-bodied (difficult to crush between fingers), have three pairs of legs. Allowing easy movement between the hair, fur or feathers of the host are excellent jumpers, leaping vertically up to seven inches and horizontally thirteen inches. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and spines on the body projecting backward. Also, there is a row of spines on the face known as a genal comb. Spine I (first outer spine) is shorter than Spine II (next inner spine) in dog fleas. Both spines are about the same length in the cat flea. Larvae are 1/4-inch long, slender, straw-colour, brown headed, wormlike, bristly-haired creatures (13 body segments), that are legless, have chewing mouthparts, are active, and avoid light. Pupae are enclosed in silken cocoons covered with particles of debris.

Habitat :
They are commonly found in clothing, bedding or near areas where host animals sleep or in the fur of the host animal. Fleas spread through homes, buildings and yards.

Lifecycle :
Normally after a blood meal, the female flea lays about 15 to 20 eggs per day up to 600 in a lifetime usually on the host (dogs, cats, rats, rabbits, mice, squirrels, chipmunks, raccoons, opossums, foxes, chickens, humans, etc.). Eggs loosely laid in the hair coat, drop out most anywhere especially where the host rests, sleeps or nests (rugs,carpets, upholstered furniture, cat or dog boxes, kennels,sand boxes, etc.). Eggs hatch in two days to two weeks into larvae found indoors in floor cracks & crevices, along baseboards, under rug edges and in furniture or beds. Outdoor development occurs in sandy gravel soils (moist sand boxes, dirt crawlspace under the house, under shrubs, etc.) where the pet may rest. Larvae are blind, avoid light, pass through three larval instars and take a week to several months to develop. Their food consists of digested blood from adult flea faeces, dead skin, hair, feathers, and other organic debris. Sleep. Pupa mature to adulthood within a silken cocoon woven by the larva to which pet hair, carpet fiber, dust, grass cuttings and other debris adheres. In about five to fourteen days, adult fleas emerge or may remain resting in the cocoon until the detection of vibration (pet and people movement), pressure (host animal lying down on them), heat, noise, or carbon dioxide (meaning a potential blood source is near). Adult fleas cannot survive or lay eggs without a blood meal, but may live from two months to one year without feeding. There is often a desperate need for flea control after a family has returned from a long vacation.

Type of Damage :
Flea bites cause a persistent, annoying itch. Scratching the area of the bite causes the skin to be irritated. Some fleas, especially the oriental rat fleas, are capable of transmitting diseases such as endemic typhus and bubonic plague. Fortunately, such instances of disease transmission to humans are rare in the southeastern United States.

Sources / Breeding :
Eggs loosely lie in the hair coat; drop out most anywhere especially where the host rests, sleeps or nests (rugs, carpets, upholstered furniture, cat or dog boxes, kennels, sand boxes, etc.).

Prevention :
Trim lawns and weeds to create a drier, less-ideal environment for flea larvae. Avoid piles of sand and gravel around the home for long periods of time. Fence yards to prevent dogs from roaming freely in heavily infested areas or contactingv other infested animals. Discourage nesting or roosting of rodents and birds on or near the premises. Screen or seal vents, chimneys, crevices, etc. where rats, mice, squirrels, raccoons, chipmunks, etc. may use to enter crawlspaces and buildings. Wash or destroy pet bedding, regularly groom pets and vacuum frequently to remove up to 95 percent of the flea eggs, some larvae and adults. Only about 20 percent of the larvae might be removed when vacuuming since they wrap themselves around the bottom strands of carpeting.

MOTH FLY

Common Name : Moth Fly / Drain Flies.

Scientific Name : Diptera: Psychodidae.

Size : Adult – 5mm .

Colour : Grey coloured fly with hairy wings – which make it look like a moth.

Description :
Adults are small and very hairy, with a pair of pointed wings. They resemble small moths because they hold their wings roof-like over the body when at rest. They are weak fliers and appear to hop or jump.

Habitat :
Larvae have chewing mouthparts. Drain flies are common around sink drains, sewage treatment facilities, storm drains, dung and rotten vegetation. Larvae are aquatic or semi-aquatic, feeding on bacteria, fungi, algae and other microorganisms present in decaying organic matter. They often feed in the liquid or slime layers which develop around debris in drains, sewage treatment beds and standing water. However, when food is scarce they may become cannibalistic. Larvae are capable of surviving temperature extremes and habitats low in oxygen.

Lifecycle :
Eggs, laid by females hatch into pale-colored larvae. Following a feeding period, larvae pupate and soon emerge as adult flies. Adults live only 3 to 4 days without food, but they can survive for weeks if nectar or other liquid carbo-hydrate food sources are available .Moth flies lay eggs in a mass of 30 to 100 which hatch in less than 48 hours. The larval stage lasts from 9 to 15 days and the pupal stage lasts from 20 to 40 hours. Adult flies may live about 3 weeks.

Disease Transmitted :
Moth flies are of little importance except as an annoyance and nuisance. They do not bite or sting. Although they could possibly be vectors of disease pathogens because of their points of origin, there is no evidence of actual transmission.

Prevention :
Control of moth flies requires locating and eliminating larval breeding sites. This may be very difficult to do; perseverance and imagination will be required. One way to check individual drains as possible breeding sites is to cover the drain with a plastic film taped to the floor or fixture (e.g. a clear plastic bag). If the flies are breeding in that drain they will accumulate underneath the film within a day or two. The only effective method to eliminate drain flies developing in drains is to clean the inside of the drain pipe to eliminate the organic matter. Clean slow-moving drains with a stiff brush or other tool. Drains that cannot be scrubbed can be rinsed with water under high pressure or "sterilized" by slowly pouring boiling water down along the sides of the drain pipe. Another possibility is the use of a bacterial drain treatment that biodegrades the organic matter.

MOUSE

Common Name : House Mouse.

Scientific Name : Mus musculus.

Size : Adult are 12-30g and the tail is 60-105mm.

Colour : Brown to black, belly fur white, brown or grey. The colour of the tail is lighter below than above.

Description :
House mouse is a small, slender rodent that has a slightly pointed nose, small, black, protruding eyes; large sparsely haired ears and a nearly hairless tail with obvious scale rings.

Habitat :
They are specially found in areas that are near human habitats and open fields House mice live in houses; out buildings, stores, and other structures. In favourable conditions, feral mice may be found in fields, along water courses and in place with dense vegetation where they can hide in. These feral animals make runways through the grass. House mouse is regularly found along irrigation ditches where irrigation is practiced, in agricultural areas.

Lifecycle :
House mouse has an extremely high breeding potential with the female house mouse becoming sexually mature at six weeks. After mating, gestation lasts 19 21 days and immediately after giving birth, mating is possible. In ideal conditions a mouse can give birth every 25 days.

Disease Transmitted :
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) Symptoms An initial phase may last for a week. It begins with any one of the following; fever, lack of appetite, muscle pains, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms that seldom appear include sore throat, cough, joint pain, chest pain, testicular pain, and parotid (salivary gland) pain. After a few days of recovery, the second phase of the disease occurs, consisting of symptoms of meningitis (for example, fever, headache, and a stiff neck) or characteristics of encephalitis (for example, drowsiness, confusion, sensory disturbances, and/or motor abnormalities, such as paralysis). LCMV has also causes acute hydrocephalus (increased fluid on the brain). In rare instances, infection results in myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord) and presents with symptoms such as muscle weakness, paralysis, or changes in body sensation. An association between LCMV infection and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscles) has been suggested. During the first phase of the disease, the most common laboratory abnormalities are a low white blood cell count (leukopenia) and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). Liver enzymes in the serum may also be mildly elevated. After the onset of neurological disease during the second phase, an increase in protein levels, an increase in the number of white blood cells or a decrease in the glucose levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is usually found.

Type of Damage :
When house mice live in or around buildings, they almost always cause some degree of economic damage. In homes and commercial buildings, they may feed on various stored food items or pet foods. They usually contaminate foodstuffs with their urine, droppings, and hair. On farms, they may cause damage to feed storage buildings and feed transporting equipment. A single mouse eats merely about 3 grams of food per day (3.6 kg per year) but it considerably destroys more food than it consumes because of its habit of biting off small bits on many foods and discarding partially eaten items. House mice living in fields may dig up and feed on newly planted grain, or may cause some damage to crops before harvest There are great losses in stored food. They are notorious of damage containers and packaging materials in warehouses where food and feeds are stored. Much of this loss is due to contamination with droppings and urine, making food to be injurious to human health. House mice cause structural damage to buildings by their biting on persistently and nest-building activities. In livestock lairages and similar structures, they may readily cause severe damage to insulation inside walls and attics. Such damage also occurs in homes, apartments, offices, and commercial buildings but usually at a slower rate because in such buildings mouse populations are small. House mice often lodge in large electrical appliances, and here they may chew up wiring as well as insulation material, resulting in short circuits which create fire hazards or other malfunctions that are costly to repair. Mice may also damage stored items in attics, basements, garages, or museums, zoo. Damaged family heirlooms, paintings, books, documents, and other such items may be impossible to replace.

Sources / Breeding :
Mus musculus is identified by remarkable reproductive potential. Breeding occurs throughout the year. The oestrous cycle is 4-6 days long, with oestrus lasting less than a day. Females experience a postpartum oestrus 12- 18 hours after giving birth. Females generally have 5-10 litters per year if conditions are favourable. Gestation is 19- 21 days but may be extended by several days if the female is lactating. Litters consist of 3-12 (generally 5 or 6) offspring, which are born naked and blind. They are fully furred after 10 days, open their eyes at 14 days, are weaned at 3 weeks, and reach sexual maturity at 5-7 weeks. Average life span is 6 years.

Prevention :
There are two ways that one could employ to preventhouse mouse infestation.

Sanitation :
Even if the area is very small and has limited amounts of food and shelter mice can survive. Consequently, no matter how good the sanitation, most buildings in which food is stored, handled or used will have an impact on the house mice infestation if not mouse-proofed. Nonetheless good sanitation will not often eliminate mice; poor sanitation is sure to attract them and will allow them to develop drastically. Good sanitation will also reduce the adequacy of food and shelter for mice. Thus good house-keeping is of paramount importance in the endeavours of house-mouse prevention.

Mouse-proof construction :
One of the most profitable ways of house mouse prevention is to “build them out” by eliminating all openings through which they can enter the building. All places where food is stored, processed or used should be made mouse-proof. Dried grain and meat products should be stored in glass jars, metal canisters or sealable airtight containers. Seal any openings larger than 6.35mmto keep mice out of the building. Steel wool mixed with sealing compound makes a good plug. Patching material needs to be smooth on the surface to prevent mice from pulling out or chewing through the patching compound. Seal cracks and openings in building foundations and openings for water pipes, vents and utilities with metal or concrete. Doors, windows and screens should be tightly fitting. It may be necessary to cover the edges with metal to prevent gnawing. Plastic sheeting or screen, wood, rubber or other chewable materials are not good for plugging holes used by mice.

CRICKETS

Common Name : Field Crickets.

Scientific Name : Gryllus spp.

Size : ½ to 1¼ inches long.

Colour : Black-coloured (sometimes brown).

Description :
Have long, slender antennae and a typical stout body (more robust than the house cricket) with large "jumping" hind legs.The ovipositor may be up to 3/4 inch long. Females have three easily seen appendages coming out of the tip of the abdomen, whereas males have only two. Most chirp and may sing both day and night.

Habitat :
Outdoors in moist places .

Lifecycle :
Field Crickets over winter as eggs or nymphs in moist, firm soil. Each female lays between 150 to 400 eggs, which hatch in the spring. Nymphs resemble adults except are smaller and wingless, molt eight to nine times and reach adulthood in about 90 days.

Type of damage :
Outdoors, high numbers of crickets can damage garden plants. Indoors, crickets can damage natural and synthetic fabrics, furs and carpeting.

Sources / Breeding :
Many begin cultures in late spring as temperatures must be 80-90° for breeding.

Prevention :
Prevention begins with reducing the amount of grass and weeds, and removing woodpiles away from buildings.

COCKROACHES

Description :
Cockroaches are medium-sized to large insects in the order Dictyoptera (formerly Orthoptera). They are broad, flattened insects with long antennae and a prominent, shield-shaped section behind the head called a pronotum. Some people confuse them with beetles, but adult cockroaches have membranous wings and lack the thick, hardened forewings (elytra) of beetles. They are nocturnal and have a tendency to scatter when disturbed. Immature cockroaches (nymphs) look like adults, but are smaller and do not have wings.

Of the six common pest species, German and brownbanded cockroaches inhabit buildings, whereas the oriental, smokybrown, American, and Turkestan cockroaches usually live outdoors or in masonry enclosures away from buildings, only occasionally invading buildings themselves. It is important to correctly identify the species involved in a cockroach infestation so that the most effective control method(s) may be chosen.

German Cockroach :
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is the most common indoor species, especially in multiple-family dwellings. They prefer food preparation areas, kitchens, and bathrooms because they favor warm (70° to 75°F), humid areas that are close to food and water. Severe infestations may spread to other parts of buildings. This species reproduces the fastest of the common pest cockroaches: a single female and her offspring can produce over 30,000 individuals in a year, but many succumb to cannibalism and other population pressures. Egg laying occurs more frequently during warm weather. The female carries around a light tan egg case (about 1/4 inch long) until 1 to 2 days before it hatches, when she drops it. Sometimes the egg case hatches while it is still being carried by the female. Each egg case contains about 30 young, and a female may produce a new egg case every few weeks.

Brownbanded Cockroach :
The brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, is not as common as the German cockroach in California and accounts for only about 1% of all indoor infestations. This species seeks out areas that are very warm most of the time, preferring temperatures of about 80°F, about 5° to 10°F warmer than what German cockroaches prefer. Favorite locations include near the warm electrical components of appliances such as radios, televisions, and refrigerators. Brownbanded cockroaches prefer starchy food (e.g., glue on stamps and envelopes), are often found in offices and other places where paper is stored, and are more common in apartments or homes that are not air conditioned. They also infest animal-rearing facilities, kitchens, and hospitals. Adult males sometimes fly when disturbed, but females do not fly. Females glue light brown egg cases, which are about 1/4 inch long, to ceilings, beneath furniture, or in closets or other dark places where eggs incubate for several weeks before hatching. Each female and her offspring are capable of producing over 600 cockroaches in one year.

Oriental Cockroach :
The oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, is sometimes referred to as a water bug or black beetle. It lives in dark, damp places like indoor and outdoor drains, water control boxes, woodpiles, basements, garages, trash cans, and damp areas under houses. It is most likely to occur in single-family dwellings that are surrounded by vegetation. It is also common in ivy, ground cover, and outside locations where people feed pets. Oriental roaches prefer cooler temperatures than the other species do, and populations of this species often build to large numbers in masonry enclosures such as water meter boxes. At night, oriental cockroaches may migrate into buildings in search of food. They usually remain on the ground floor of buildings and move more slowly than the other species. Oriental cockroaches do not fly and are unable to climb smooth vertical surfaces; consequently they are commonly found trapped in porcelain sinks or tubs. Females deposit dark red-brown egg cases, which are about 3/8 inch long, in debris or food located in sheltered places. Each female and her offspring can produce nearly 200 cockroaches in one year. Development from a newly emerged nymph to adult can take from 1 to 2 years or more.

Smokybrown Cockroach :
The smokybrown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa, is usually found in decorative plantings and planter boxes, woodpiles, garages, and water meter boxes; it may occasionally inhabit municipal sewers. They sometimes invade homes, taking refuge in areas such as the attic. Nymphs are dark brown and have white segments at the end of their antennae and across their backs. Smokybrown cockroaches prefer the upper parts of buildings; they also may live under shingles or siding and sometimes get into trees, shrubs, and other vegetation during summer months. Females carry the dark brown to black egg case, which measures about 3/8 inch long, for about 1 day before dropping it; eggs can quickly hatch in 24 days or take 70 days after being laid, depending on temperature. About 40 to 45 nymphs hatch from a single egg case.

American Cockroach :
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, prefers warm and humid environments, usually with temperatures in excess of 82°F. Under the right conditions, they readily live outdoors and are common pests in zoos and animal-rearing facilities. They are also common in sewers, steam tunnels, and masonry storm drains. Occasionally they forage from sewers and other areas into the ground floor of buildings. Adult females carry the egg cases around for about 6 days and then cement them to a protected surface where they incubate for about 2 months or longer. The egg cases, which are about 3/8 inch long, are brown when laid but turn black in 1 to 2 days. Each egg capsule contains about 12 young; a female and her offspring can produce over 800 cockroaches in one year.

Turkestan Cockroach :
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis, is usually found in water meter boxes, cracks between blocks of poured concrete, compost piles, leaf litter, and potted plants. They may occasionally be found inhabiting sewer systems. Turkestan cockroaches are relatively new to California and are often mistaken for other cockroach species. Females are often confused with the oriental cockroach but can be distinguished by the cream-colored markings along the edges behind the head and around the short, rounded wings. Males are often confused with the American cockroach but are smaller and have yellowish-tan wings with cream-colored stripes along the edges. The nymphs are half black and half dark red. The biology of the Turkestan cockroach is very similar to the oriental cockroach.

Field Cockroach :
The field cockroach, Blattella vaga, prefers outdoor locations and is usually found in leaf litter and plant debris. Field roaches invade indoor areas when it is hot or dry outdoors and are often mistaken for German cockroaches. Field roaches are more olive in color than German roaches and they have a black stripe between the eyes. Adult females carry the egg cases until they are ready to hatch. Each egg capsule usually contains between 30 and 40 young. Development from a newly emerged nymph to adult can be completed in about 3 months.

LIFE CYCLE :
An adult female cockroach produces an egg capsule, called an ootheca, which it carries around protruding from the tip of the abdomen. The German cockroach carries the ootheca for most of the 30-day incubation period and then drops it about the time the eggs hatch; the adult female field cockroach also carries the ootheca until eggs are ready to hatch. The other five species carry it for only a short time before depositing it in a suitable location where it incubates for weeks or months. Young or immature cockroaches undergo gradual metamorphosis, which means they resemble adults and have similar feeding habits, but they do not have fully developed wings and are not reproductively active. Immediately after molting, cockroaches are white, but their outer covering darkens as it hardens, usually within hours.

Cockroaches are nocturnal. They hide in dark, warm areas, especially narrow spaces where surfaces touch them on both sides. Adult German cockroaches can hide in a crack 1/16 inch or 1.6 mm wide. Immature cockroaches tend to stay in even smaller cracks where they are well protected. Cockroaches tend to congregate in corners and generally travel along the edges of walls or other surfaces.

MANAGEMENT :
Change the situation that promotes cockroaches .
Managing cockroaches is not easy. You must first determine where the roaches are located. The more hiding places you locate and manage, the more successful your control program will be. Remember that cockroaches are tropical and most like warm hiding places with access to water. Some locations may be difficult to get to. Reduction of food and water sources and hiding places is essential. Note locations of suspected infestations and concentrate control and preventive measures in these areas. The keys to controlling cockroaches are sanitation and exclusion: cockroaches are likely to reinvade as long as a habitat is suitable to them (i.e., food, water, and shelter are available), so the conditions that promoted the infestation must be changed.

HOUSE FLY

Common Name : House Fly .

Scientific Name : Musca domestica Linnaeus (Insecta: Diptera: Muscidae) .

Size : 7-8 mm.

Description :
Adult: The house fly is 5 to 7 mm long, with the female usually larger than the male. Its head has reddish-eyes and sponging mouthparts. The thorax bears four narrow black stripes and there is a sharp upward bend in the fourth longitudinal wing vein. The abdomen is gray or yellowish with dark midline and irregular dark markings on the sides. The underside of the male is yellowish. The sexes can be readily separated by noting the space between the eyes, which in females is almost twice as broad as in males. The house fly is often confused with the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus), and the false stable fly, Muscina stabulans (Germar). All three are in the same family.

Habitat :
The flies are inactive at night, with ceilings, beams and overhead wires within buildings, trees, and shrubs, various kinds of outdoor wires, and grasses reported as overnight resting sites. In poultry ranches, the night time, outdoor aggregations of flies are found mainly in the branches, and shrubs, whereas almost all of the indoor populations are generally aggregated in the ceiling area of poultry houses.

Lifecycle :
The house fly has a complete metamorphosis with distinct egg, larva or maggot, pupal and adult stages. The house fly over-winters in either the larval or pupal stage under manure piles or in other protected locations. Warm summer conditions are generally optimum for the development of the house fly, and it can complete its life cycle in as little as seven to ten days and as many as 10 to 12 generations may occur in one summer. Egg: The white egg, about 1.2 mm in length, is laid singly but eggs are piled in small groups. Each female fly can lay up to 500 eggs in several batches of 75 to 150 eggs over a three to four day period. The number of eggs produced is a function of female size which, itself, is principally a result of larval nutrition. Larva: The mature larva is 3 to 9 mm long, typical creamy whitish in colour, cylindrical but tapering toward the head. The head contains one pair of dark hooks. The posterior spiracles are slightly raised and the spiracular openings are sinuous slits which are completely surrounded by an oval black border. The legless maggot emerges from the egg in warm weather within eight to 20 hours, and immediately feeds on and develops in the material in which the egg was laid. The full-grown maggot has a greasy, cream-colored appearance and is 8 to 12 mm long. The larva goes through three instars. When the maggot is full-grown, it can crawl up to 50 feet to a dried, cool place near breeding material and transform to the pupal stage. High-moisture manure favors the survival of the house fly larva. Pupa: The pupa is dark brown and 8 mm long. The pupal stage is passed in a pupal case formed from the last larval skin which varies in colour from yellow, red, brown, to black as the pupa ages. The emerging fly escapes from the pupal case through the use of an alternately swelling and shrinking sac, called the ptilinum, on the front of its head which it uses like a pneumatic hammer to break through the case. Adults usually live 15 to 25 days. It has been stated that a pair of flies beginning operations in April may be progenitors, if all were to live, of 191,010,000,000,000,000,000, flies by August. Adults suck liquids containing sweet or decaying substances. Larvae feed on moist food rich in organic matter. Although they are attracted to a variety of food material, house flies have mouthparts which allow them to ingest only liquid materials. Solid materials are liquified by means of regurgitated saliva. The flies are inactive at night, with ceilings, beams and overhead wires within buildings, trees, and shrubs, various kinds of outdoor wires, and grasses reported as overnight resting sites. In poultry ranches, the nighttime, outdoor aggregations of flies are found mainly in the branches, and shrubs, whereas almost all of the indoor populations generally aggregated in the ceiling area of poultry houses.

Disease Transmitted :
More than 100 pathogens associated with the house fly may cause disease in humans and animals, including typhoid, cholera, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax ophthalmia and infantile diarrhea, as well as parasitic worms. Pathogenic organisms are picked up by flies from garbage, sewage and other sources of filth, and then transferred on their mouthparts, through their vomitus, feces and contaminated external body parts to human and animal food. The most important damage related with this insect is the annoyance and the indirect damage produced by the potential transmission of more than 100 pathogens associated with this fly.

Type of Damage :
Flies commonly develop in large numbers in poultry manure under caged hens, and this is a serious problem requiring control. The control of Musca domestica is vital to human health and comfort in many areas of the world. The most important damage related with this insect is the annoyance and the indirect damage produced by the potential transmission of more than 100 pathogens associated with this fly.Sources / BreedingThe flies are inactive at night, with ceilings, beams and overhead wires within buildings, trees, and shrubs, various kinds of outdoor wires, and grasses reported as overnight resting sites. In poultry ranches, the nighttime, outdoor aggregations of flies are found mainly in the branches, and shrubs, whereas almost all of the indoor populations generally aggregated in the ceiling area of poultry houses.

Prevention :
House flies are monitored with baited traps, sticky ribbons, or spot cards on livestock facilities. Spot cards are white index cards attached to fly resting surface. A minimum of five cards should be placed in each animal facility and left in place for seven days. A count of 100 or more faecal or vomit spots per card per week indicates a high level of fly activity and a need for control. The more commonly used control measures for house flies are sanitation, use of traps, and insecticides, but in some instances integrated fly control has been implemented. The use of biological control in fly management is still at a relatively early stage. Good sanitation is the basic step in any fly management program. Food and materials on which the flies can lay eggs must be removed, destroyed as a breeding medium, or isolated from the egg-laying adult. Since the house fly can complete its life cycle in as little as seven days, removal of wet manure at least twice a week is necessary to break the breeding cycle. Wet straw should not be allowed to pile up in or near buildings. Since straw is one of the best fly breeding materials, it is not recommended as bedding. Spilled feed should not be allowed to accumulate but should be cleaned up two times a week. Ordinarily, fly control from 1 to 2 km around a municipality prevents house fly infestations. Killing adult flies may reduce the infestation, but elimination of breeding areas is necessary for good management. Garbage cans and dumpsters should have tight-fitting lids and be cleaned regularly. Dry garbage and trash should be placed in plastic garbage bags and sealed up. All garbage receptacles should be located as far from building entrances as possible. For control at waste disposal sites, refuse should be deposited onto the same area as inorganic wastes to deteriorate the capacity of breeding resources, or the disposed refuse should be covered with soil or other inorganic wastes (15 cm thickness) on every weekend or every other weekend. The house fly has many natural enemies and among the more important in poultry facilities are the wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) Muscidiforax raptor and Spalangia cameroni. Leaving a layer of old manure in the pits when manure is removed might enhance or stabilize the suppression of the house flies densities by parasitoids and predators. Periodic release of parasitoids during winter and spring, and following manure removal, might effectively suppress densities in poultry facilities.

NORWAY RAT

Common Name : Brown Rat, Norway Rat, Norwegian Rat, Sewer Rat, Water Rat, German Wanderrate.

Scientific Name : Rattus norvegicus.

Size Length : 180 – 255 mm.

Tail length :
Short scaly tail, shorter than body 150-215 mm.

Weight :
200-480g.

Color :
Grey-brown above, white to grey below with shaggy bristly fur.

Habitat :
Most commonly found near farms In garbage dumps and in sewers.

Lifecycle :
Female rats are able to reproduce at approximately 3 months and gestation (pregnancy) lasts about 21 days with each litter averaging 4 – 6. The young are weaned at between 3 – 4 weeks and reach maturity at around 3 – 4 months of age. Rats do not have to wait until the original litter is weaned before being able to conceive again.

Disease Transmitted :
Can carry a plethora of organisms, responsible for diseases such as toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, Q fever, and Hantaan fever among others. These diseases can be passed on to humans through contact with rat droppings or urine, or bites from the rats or their fleas.

Type of damage :
They may transmit disease, soil and destroy materials and damage buildings.

Prevention :
Keep firewood stored well away from the structure. Remove debris piles. Seal any holes larger than 1/4 inch. Remove moisture and harbourage sources.

HOUSE MOSQUITO

Common Name : House Mosquito.

Scientific Name : Culex pipiens.

Size : Light brown.

Description :
Culex pipiens is a light brown, medium sized mosquito with a blunt tipped abdomen (body). There are narrow white bands on the body segments but none on the legs or proboscis (beak or biting mouth parts). Males resemble the females, but are easily recognized by their bushy antennae.

Habitat :
Stagnant water, Polluted streams, catch basins, untended swimming pools and ornamental pools .

Lifecycle :
House Mosquitoes have four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. After an adult female lays her eggs they hatch into larvae (wrigglers) which feed on small organic particles and micro-organisms in the water. About four to six days are required for larval development. At the end of the larval stage, the mosquito molts and becomes the aquatic pupa (tumbler). The pupa is active only if disturbed, for this is the resting stage where the larval form is transformed into the adult. This takes about two days during which time feeding does not occur. When the transformation is completed, the new adult splits the pupal skin and emerges.

Disease Transmitted :
Wet Nile virus St Louis encephalitis .

Smokybrown Cockroach :
The smokybrown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa, is usually found in decorative plantings and planter boxes, woodpiles, garages, and water meter boxes; it may occasionally inhabit municipal sewers. They sometimes invade homes, taking refuge in areas such as the attic. Nymphs are dark brown and have white segments at the end of their antennae and across their backs. Smokybrown cockroaches prefer the upper parts of buildings; they also may live under shingles or siding and sometimes get into trees, shrubs, and other vegetation during summer months. Females carry the dark brown to black egg case, which measures about 3/8 inch long, for about 1 day before dropping it; eggs can quickly hatch in 24 days or take 70 days after being laid, depending on temperature. About 40 to 45 nymphs hatch from a single egg case.

Symptoms :
Saint Louis Encephalitis:Fever, severe headache, nausea, and stiff neck.Severe cases may include vomiting, disorientation and paralysis.West Nile Virus Fever, headache, nausea, body aches and swollen lymph nodes.

Type of Damage :
They also transmit the organisms causing bird malaria, fowl pox, and heartworm of dogs.

Field Cockroach :
The field cockroach, Blattella vaga, prefers outdoor locations and is usually found in leaf litter and plant debris. Field roaches invade indoor areas when it is hot or dry outdoors and are often mistaken for German cockroaches. Field roaches are more olive in color than German roaches and they have a black stripe between the eyes. Adult females carry the egg cases until they are ready to hatch. Each egg capsule usually contains between 30 and 40 young. Development from a newly emerged nymph to adult can be completed in about 3 months.

Prevention :
Where possible, sources of standing, fouling water should be eliminated by dumping, filling, pumping, or draining.Temporary containers around the home, such as buckets, flower vases, tubs, and tires should be checkedUnderground drains or cleanouts should also be checked.